Rachel Duddy

Spanish & French

Calderhead High

  • Assessment For Learning

Using Real-Time Feedback in the Classroom


This account outlines the details and findings of an enquiry into the possible effects of providing pupils with real-time verbal feedback in the classroom. William and Black (1998) established through extensive research that formative assessment is the most powerful tool in increasing pupil achievement. In their work, William and Black (1998) also highlight effective feedback as one of the many tools available to teachers to engage in formative assessment. Hattie (1992) described feedback as ‘the most powerful single moderator that enhances achievement’. When feedback is delivered effectively and relates to success criteria clearly laid out in the lesson it is most effective. Kluger and DeNisi (1996) found that feedback leads to achievement when it provides learners with ways they can improve. Similarly, The Sutton Trust Report (2011) depicts effective feedback as information the learner receives about their progress in relation to the learning goals and states that feedback can affect self-esteem when comments are negative. Therefore, the feedback given to pupils must be both relevant to the individual learning goals of the learner and must aim to improve overall achievement. This enquiry draws on this necessity for effective feedback and looks at how real-time feedback could have a possible impact on pupils’ confidence and therefore achievement of the learning goals.


The aim of this professional enquiry was to establish the possible effect of providing pupils with real-time feedback in class and to explore its potential effect on pupil confidence and achievement.

Download Practitioner Enquiry