Evidence suggests that academic attainment can be improved through supporting pupils in developing a growth mindset: the belief that intelligence is not a fixed characteristic and can be increased through effort (Good et al., 2003). Blackwell and colleague (2007) suggest that holding this belief enables pupils to work harder and achieve better results, key to raising attainment and achieving equity (Scottish Government, 2018).
One of the most important aspects relating to the development of a growth mindset is Feedback. It is suggested that when feedback is effective, it helps learners see where they currently are in relation to success criteria and entices learners to act upon it – this seems to contribute to their understanding that talents and abilities can be developed through effort and persistence (Dweck, 2000).
As feedback is designed to enhance student learning, it is insufficient to only provide it at the end of a topic or lesson to highlight where they have gone wrong. To be effective, feedback needs to be a two way dialogue which helps motivate students. Students need ongoing, timely feedback within lessons, along with support on how best to use it. Students also need the opportunity to give feedback on what they have learned so that teachers can evaluate the success of learning and adapt teaching when necessary. Feedback should therefore be a continuous process of conversation and reflection, within lessons (not between).
Providing short burst of formative feedback using AiFL strategies as a basis (for example, problem solving tasks, think-pair-shares and show me boards) may help to develop a continuous conversation between students and teachers that supports students to become reflective learners
To investigate if regular, ongoing feedback has an impact on pupils’ understanding of content.
To investigate if regular, ongoing feedback has an impact on pupils’ desire for feedback.